In general though , all exams will include the same 5 elements:
1. Technical work (scales and excercies)
2. Your repertoire of pieces (List pieces and extras)
3. General Knowledge of your List pieces
4. Sight Reading
5. Aural tests
In all instruments , your technical work must be prepared and played from memory , and the examiner will call out the scales at random.
Preliminary and Grade 1 exams are just 3 pieces and no extras
Grades 2-4 are 3 pieces and 2 extras
Grades 5-7 are 4 pieces and 2 extras
Grade 8 is just 4 pieces.
For a handy checklist , you can download a free printable here: